ASSESSMENT OF AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF E-LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION PROGRAM IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITIES

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ABSTRACT

 This study investigated the assessment of the availability and utilization of e-learning technologies in the Business Education programs in public universities in Lagos State. The population of this study consisted of 150 students from the Department of Educational Management, Business Education Unit 200l – 400l while 50 students will be drawn out using purposive random technique. A descriptive Survey research design, data were collected from respondents through the administration of (AAUETBE) was used as a data collection tool and it is subjected to a reliability test of + 0.73 coefficient, PPMCC was used to test statistics, the findings revealed that E-learning technologies is available for utilization of business education programme in public universities in Lagos state simple percentage distribution was used to present data ,it is recommended that both the lecturer and the students should develop personal interest in the utilization of e-learning and  E-learning should be made compulsory in tertiary institutions and the lecturer should be given proper training on the effective use of e-learning.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE      PAGES

Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

Table of Content v

Abstract vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem 5

1.3 Purpose of the Study 7

1.4 Research Question 7

1.5 Research Hypotheses 7

1.6 Significance of Study 8

1.7 Scope of Study 8

1.8 Limitation on the Study 8

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms 9

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 Introduction 11

2.1 Theoretical Framework 11

2.1.1 Constructivism Theory 11

2.1.2Facilitation Theory (The Humanist Approach) 12

2.2 Conceptual Framework 13

2.2.1 Concept of E-Learning 13

2.2.2 Benefits of ICT in Education 17

2.2.3 Benefits of E-learning 18

2.2.4 How E-Teaching and E-Learning Can Improve the Quality of Education in Tertiary Institution 23

2.2.5 ICT Enhancing the Quality and Accessibility of Education 26

2.2.6 Challenges to e-Learning Technologies in the Nigerian Tertiary Education 29

2.3 Empirical Review 30

2.4 Summary of Literature Review 32

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design 35

3.2 Population of the study 35

3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 35

3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 35

3.5 Validity of Research Instrument 36

3.6 Reliability of the Research Instrument 36

3.7 Method of Data Collection 36

3.8 Method of Data Analysis 36

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION

AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction 37

4.2 Analysis of Respondents’ Bio Data 37

4.3 Analysis of Research Questions 39

4.4 Test of Hypotheses 41

4.5 Discussion on Findings 43

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. 5.1 Introduction 49

5.2 Summary 49

5.3 Conclusion 50

5.4 Recommendations 50

Reference 53

Appendix 58

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Technology has greatly impacted on education and training globally by improving teaching and learning. The process of education, especially the manner in which teachers and learners have access to information and knowledge in the 21st century has been modified tremendously by technology, particularly ICT. The incorporation of ICT into instructional delivery has launched a novel system of learning known globally as e-learning. Institutions are now witnessing a paradigm shift from teacher-centred to learner-centred learning with the development of e-learning technologies. According to Evarest and Laura (2014), Electronic learning, also referred to as e-learning, is increasingly becoming popular in tertiary institutions all over the world. This is as a result of the opportunities provided by various institutions and the fact that more students are making use of e-learning technologies (Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD, 2005).

Electronic learning is basically the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to enhance and support teaching/learning and research (Eteng and Ntui, 2019). The application of ICT in education has given rise to a new set of vocabularies used to describe new approaches to learning and curriculum delivery. Such terms include e-teaching and e-learning, among others which are facilitated via the internet. The availability of the internet provides the channel for the use of the electronic approach in education known as electronic learning or e-learning. Simply put, e-learning is the process of teaching and learning using the computer via the Internet. It involves passing structured instructional materials from an instructor (lecturer) to a learner (student) through the use of ICTs.

E-learning also refers to computer-enhanced training as opposed to the computer-based training of the 1980s (Erah 2016). Erah further stated that, e-learning is an approach that facilitates and enhance learning through both computer and other communication technologies. Rosenberg (2013) sees e-learning as the application of the internet to support the delivery of skills and knowledge in a holistic manner not restricted to particular courses, technologies or infrastructure.

E-learning can be described as a “virtual classroom”. In an e-learning platform, the instructor/lecturer sends out learning materials by electronic means to each participant/student and the students submit their assignments electronically to the lecturer and receive corrections later. In this way, e-learning is established. E-learning is learner-centered which is like a shift from Traditional Learning which is teacher-centered. E-learning enriches learning content and enhances wider access to information resources. When the potential of e-learning is fully harnessed, it would advance knowledge by expanding and widening access, improving the quality of education and reducing cost (Newhouse, 2012).

E-learning technology has the potential to transform how and when learners learn. The use of these e-learning facilities involves various methods which include systematic feedback system, computer-based operation networks, video conferencing and audio conferencing, internet worldwide websites and computer-assisted instruction (Ajayi, 2018).

This delivery method increases the possibilities for how, where and when learners can engage in lifelong learning. Both lecturers and students are especially excited about the potential of e-learning for just-in-time learning delivery. Electronic learning (e-learning) technologies are becoming increasingly popular in tertiary institutions as they are used for tutoring, managing courses, providing simulations, enriching existing courses, programming and problem-solving.

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The catalyst for growth in elearning is its suitability for simulation and experiential learning through the internet and computer applications. The worldwide web is full of free knowledgeable and pragmatic exercises that are effective for application in education. Elearning technologies are tools and methods used in electronic learning. Some of them include: computer, internet, blogspot, youtube, telephone, e-mail, web browsers, virtual classroom, television, projector, interactive whiteboard, among others. Pirani (2014) argued that for an institution to be able to adopt e-learning, it must provide adequate and reliable technical infrastructures.

E-learning technology is highly demanded by teachers and students because of its costeffectiveness, flexibility of access, elimination of distance barriers for globally distributed learners, the need for just-in-time training, allowance for individual differences and permission for alternative pedagogies like simulation, experiential, interactivity and self-paced learning. Gold (2016) opined that e-learning technologies are available in all functional areas of business education.

The only limitation, according to Gold, is the creativity of the teachers to access and use them in teaching and learning. The rapid growth in e-learning is also largely influenced by the high demand and supply of e-learning products and channels. Okoro (2018) indicated that students’ learning in business education can be significantly enhanced through the use of e-learning technologies.

Organization of Economic CoOperation and Development (OECD, 2005), however, stated that e-learning technology is still proving slow in terms of taking up by many institutions of learning. Nwagbo and Ugwuanyi (2011) cited in Agboeze, Ugwoke, & Onu (2012) argued that the pace of development and utilization of e-learning technologies and application for educational purposes, including the teaching and learning of business education in developing countries like Nigeria, is still very low compared to other developed countries. Business Education is a program geared towards the acquisition of knowledge and skills needed in the workplace.

A very important need in the present business environment is the ability of staff to use computer programs for diverse purposes. The usage of e-learning technologies by business education students in tertiary institutions will serve as bedrock for utilizing computer and software applications in the work environment. With the advancement of information and communication technology (ICT), there are changes in pedagogical delivery system.

According to Olumese (2018), there are three methods that can be used in business education instructional delivery. They are formal education, non-formal education and informal education. These three methods can utilize information communication technology (ICT) such as microcomputers, video conferencing, electronic mail, cyberspace and internet, computer, teleconferencing and audio conferencing. Others include hypertext, video text, communication satellite, interactive cable television technique. The availability of e-learning technologies in Nigerian universities appears to be poor when compared to other developed countries of the world Olaniyi (2016).

Basic e-learning technologies such as the computer, printer, scanner, internet, projector, website, interactive whiteboard, etc. which are available are in short supply. Sometimes, when they are available, they are underutilized by both lecturers and students. Similarly, the utilization of e-learning technologies also seems to be low. Maduabuchi (2018) posited that most Business Education lecturers lack computer skills as they only base their knowledge on a computer course referred to as computer appreciation which they took in the course of their academic training. Most lecturers still prefer the traditional style of teaching while students prefer to use these e-learning technologies where they are available for social communication rather than for the purpose of learning and hence, a reason for low utilization.

The skepticism by lecturers for the use of e-learning in the instructional delivery with the students’ preference her more, despite the benefits that can accrue from the use of e-learning technologies, a number of literature (Akuchie, 2008; Kamba, 2009; Evarest and Laura, 2011) reported that there seem to be lack of availability and underutilization of e-learning technologies where they exist in Nigerian universities especially when compared to other universities in developed countries of the world. E-learning is fast becoming more popular in business education instructional delivery in most tertiary institutions in technologically advanced countries of the world.

However, in Nigeria, its usage as instructional method of teaching and learning in business education programme of tertiary institutions needs to be emphasized in line with what obtains in other parts of the world. Incidentally, in Nigerian universities, e-learning technologies seem not to be adequately available nor utilized.

Evarest and Laura (2011) in their study on learning electronically in Nigerian universities revealed that e-learning facilities appear to be inadequate and students access to these facilities is very negligible. It is against this background that this study is set to assess the availability and utilization of e-learning technologies for improving the teaching and learning of Business Education programmes in public universities in Lagos State.

The aim of this study, therefore, is to determine the assessment of the availability and utilization of e-learning technologies for business education programmes in public universities in Lagos State and to recommend strategies for enhancing the availability and utilization of e-learning technologies for Business Education programmes in public universities in Lagos State, Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The world is technologically getting advanced.  It is sometimes referred to as a global village.  The reason for this assertion is attributed to the influence of information and communication technology.  E-learning as a matter of fact is fast becoming popular in business education instructional delivery method, most especially in tertiary institutions in Europe, America, and other developed and technologically advanced countries.

In Nigeria, its usage as instructional method of teaching and learning in business education programme of tertiary institutions needs to be emphasized in line with what obtains in other part of the world.  Pedagogic application of ICT involves effective learning with the aid of computer and other information technologies serve as learning aids, which play complementary roles in teaching and learning situations.

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Technologies such as e-learning necessitate and facilitate learning. The use of new methods promotes learning at a distance, and on one’s own and pace possible. Modeling, simulation, use of data base, guided instruction, closed world exploration results, in changes in terms of teaching strategy, instructional content, role of the teachers and context of the curricular is made obvious and inevitable.  Furthermore, utilization of e-learning tools and technologies enhances motivation, help recall previous learning, and provide new instructional stimulus for the learners.
However, there is dearth of enough e-learning tools and technologies that are required for teaching and learning.  In addition, many teachers and students do not have the required skills and competency in the utilization of e-learning for impacting business education courses.

The light of the above observations inspired the researcher’s curiosity to investigate the availability and utilization of e-learning technologies in business education programme in Nigeria tertiary institutions.  In addition to the above, is the rising dissatisfaction among employers of labour on the poor performance and competencies, skills of business education graduates in the use of e-learning technologies in the new world of work.  The implication of this is that a business education graduate becomes unemployable and unfit either in a paid job or self employment and sustainability.

This unfortunate situation is obviously a problem which will necessitate the need to determine the extent of utilization, possible benefits, problems and strategies of enhancing e-learning tools and technologies in business education programme of tertiary institutions in Lagos State. This will fill the missing gap and streamline the skills acquired in school with what is required by the industry.  Since business education is for and about work.

1.3 Purpose of the Study for the assessment of the availability and utilization of e-learning technologies

The general purpose of this study is based on an assessment of the availability and utilization of e-learning technologies in the Business Education program in public universities in Lagos State. Specifically, the study aims to determine the;

  1. Ascertain the e-learning technologies available in Business Education programme in public universities.
  2. Determine the available e-learning technologies available for classroom delivery in Business Education programme in public universities in Lagos State.

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What is the e-learning technologies utilization in business education programme in public universities in Lagos State?
  2. What are the e-learning technologies available for classroom delivery in business education programmes in public universities in Lagos State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H01: E-learning technologies is not utilized for business education programme in public universities in Lagos state

H02: There are no e-learning technologies available for classroom delivery in business education programme in public universities in Lagos State 

1.6 Significance of Study

This study has great significance. First of all, the study findings will provide knowledge and information on the availability and utilization of E-learning in business education programmes. It will also provide knowledge and guidelines that may be of help to policymakers. The research is of importance to planners, implementers and recipients of the curriculum to the effect that it could enhance students in various academic disciplines. Application of ICT-based teaching and learning in an interactive manner stimulate students’ interests to acquire knowledge and apply the acquired knowledge in solving practical life social and economic problems.

1.7 Scope of Study

The study is aimed at the assessment of availability and utilization of e-learning in business education programme in Lagos State University, Ojo.

1.8 Limitation on the Study

This study will be faced with some challenges. The study will also face difficulties in getting willing respondents. Each step of the data collection process involved participation in the form of providing learned, truthful and accurate responses to the pertinent issue; therefore, the researcher was sensitive to the possibilities of negative perception of questions and comments during all interviews.

 

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

E-Learning Technology: In the context of this study, e-learning technology refers to the digital tools, platforms, and resources used to facilitate the delivery of educational content and support learning in business education programs. It includes learning management systems, online course materials, multimedia resources, communication tools, and interactive learning modules that can be accessed and utilized through digital devices and the Internet.

Availability of E-Learning Technology: The availability of e-learning technology refers to the presence and accessibility of digital tools, infrastructure, and resources necessary for implementing e-learning in business education programs. It encompasses the availability of computer labs, internet connectivity, e-learning platforms, digital course materials, and any other technological resources required for students and faculty to engage in e-learning activities.

Utilization of E-Learning Technology: The utilization of e-learning technology refers to the extent to which students and faculty actively engage with and make use of the available e-learning resources and tools within business education programs. It encompasses the frequency and depth of usage, such as accessing online course materials, participating in virtual discussions, completing online assessments, and utilizing interactive learning features offered by e-learning platforms.

Business Education Programs: Business education programs refer to academic programs offered by tertiary universities that focus on imparting knowledge and skills related to various aspects of business and management. These programs may include undergraduate and postgraduate degrees such as Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Master of Business Administration (MBA), and specialized business courses covering subjects such as finance, marketing, entrepreneurship, human resources, and operations management.

Tertiary Universities: Tertiary universities, also known as higher education institutions or post-secondary institutions, are educational establishments that provide education beyond the secondary level. In this study, tertiary universities specifically refer to universities, colleges, or institutes that offer business education programs at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels.

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