EFFECT OF TERTIARY EDUCATION TAX FUND (TETFUND) ON MANAGEMENT OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN LAGOS STATE

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ABSTRACT

This study set out to determine the effect of Tertiary Education Tax Fund (TETFUND) on management of tertiary institutions in Lagos State. Specifically, the study seeks to find out if TETFUND projects have positive impacts on the physical development of tertiary institutions in Lagos State, to investigate the effect of government funding on provision of infrastructural facilities for tertiary institutions in Lagos State and to determine if education tax fund allocations to tertiary institutions in Lagos state affects the enrollment ratio to Lagos State tertiary institutions. The population was selected through sample and sampling technique. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of 200 respondents selected from four (4) faculties in Lagos State University. Three hypothesis were formulated in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted since the study aims at describing and exploring the effect of TETFUND on the management of tertiary education in Lagos state without any attempt being made to control or manipulate the outcome of the study. Based on the findings of the study, It was revealed that there is a significant relationship between adoption of TETFUND management and positive impact on physical development of tertiary education in Lagos State, Government funding has a significant relationship on the provision of infrastructural facilities for tertiary education in Lagos State, and there is a significant relationship between TETFUND allocations and enrollment ratio to Lagos State tertiary institutions. The findings of this research therefore revealed that TETFUND has impacted positively in Educational Development in Lagos State with particular focus on Tertiary Education. The study concluded that TETFUND has been able to make significant positive impact towards improving the educational development in Tertiary institutions in Lagos State. Recommendations were made on how to improve the quality of university education. The findings have important implications in making significant positive impact towards improving the educational development in tertiary institutions in Lagos state.

 

 

TITLE PAGE i

CERTIFICATION ii

DEDICATION iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv

ABSTRACT v

TABLE OF CONTENTS vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem 4

1.3 Purpose of the Study 6

1.4 Research Questions 6

1.5 Research Hypotheses 6

1.6 Significance of the Study 6

1.7 Scope of the Study   7

1.8 Limitations on the Study   7

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms   7

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Conceptual Framework 9

2.1.1 Tertiary Education tax fund 10

2.1.2 Historical background of TETFUND 11

2.1.3 Establishment of the tertiary education tax fund 13

2.1.4 Functions of TETFUND 15

2.1.5 Source of Funding Tertiary Education in Lagos State 17

2.1.6 Funding of Tertiary Education 17

2.1.7 Management of tertiary education in Lagos State 19

2.1.8 Effect of inadequate funding on performance of tertiary

education in Lagos State 20

2.2   Theoretical framework 21

2.2.1 Resource based theory 21

2.3 Empirical Review of Literature 23

2.4 Appraisal of Reviewed Literature 24

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction   26

3.2 Research Design       26

3.3    Population of the Study 26

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 27

3.5 Research Instruments and Instrumentation 27

3.6 Validity of Instruments 27

3.7 Reliability of Instruments 28

3.8 Method of Data Collection 28

3.9 Method of Data Analysis 28

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

4.0 Introduction 29

4.1 Demographic Analysis 29

4.2    Testing of Hypotheses 30

4.3 Findings 33

4.4 Discussion of Findings 33

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND  RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    Summary 36

5.2    Conclusion 37

5.3    Recommendations 37

REFERENCES 39

APPENDIX 43

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION OF THE EFFECT OF TERTIARY EDUCATION TAX FUND (TETFUND) ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS 

  • Background to the Study

All the way through times past, teachers are considered as the key elements in the teaching and learning process. They are also the principal actor in working towards the achievement of the aims and objectives of education. The teacher in the educational process, plans, organizes and controls the pupil’s activity and consequently appears in the position of a leader. As a leader, he is saddled with the responsibility to make provision for all the procedures necessary for the establishment and maintenance of an environment that is conducive and appropriate for learning. The way the teacher structures his daily schedule, sets up his classroom, plans daily lessons and sets expectation for pupil’s behaviour will determine the success of teaching and learning. One of the yardstick for determining the effectiveness and efficiency of a teacher is to measure how well he/she is able to cope with the demand of the responsibilities saddled on him and the learners’ outcome (Adeyemi & Bolarinwa, 2013; Anyakoha & Anyanwu, 2006; Jones & Jones, 2012).

Teachers find themselves in the classroom filled with pupils from dissimilar background, varied interest, of wide- ranging behaviour and different abilities. In an attempt to take care of these differences, the teacher unavoidably needs to carefully manage the classroom and the environment (Bulger, et al., 2002; Doyle, 2006; Shin & Koh, 2007). Management of the classroom is an important skill a teacher needs in order to successfully build a secure and effective learning environment for pupils’ quality education. One of the basic elements of teaching identified by several authors is the teacher’s ability to organize instructions for learning (Evertson & Neal, 2005; Jones & Jones, 2012; Martin et al., 2003). Okoth (2000); Marzano and Marzano (2007) and Margaret (2014) also observed that pupils’ academic achievement and attitude towards learning can be greatly determined by the teachers’ classroom management. Teachers are expected to be able to apply strategies that will encourage pupils to learn regardless of the major constraints of inadequate physical facilities and teachers’ work environment (Arogundade & Bolarinwa, 2011; Zuckerman 2007). According to Akpakwu (2008), the management a teacher chooses to perform his/her tasks will determine whether the task at hand and long-term organizational goals will be accomplished accomplish or not.

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Classroom management has been described in literature by several authors. Doyle (2006) refers to it as the actions teachers take to maintain order in the classroom. Some say it is a function of the interaction between teachers and learners that bring self-control and respect for authority (Alderman, 2004; Bush, 2008; Kimacia, 2007; Ritter, 2003). Classroom management is an extensive and essential component that expresses how a teacher manages the learning activities, the pupils’ behaviour and other social rapport in the classroom (Benchman & Menckhoff, 2008; Martin et al., 2009; Martin & Yin, 2009). For effective classroom management, a teacher must have good knowledge of the pupils’ individual learning needs, psychological desires and be able to establish an encouraging teacher-pupil relationship that benefits pupils’ mental and emotional needs. Also, he should be able to use a teaching method that will be responsive to pupils’ learning and developmental needs (Akiri & Ugborugho, 2009; Fadipe, 2000; Gonzales, 2004; Harris & Muijis, 2005). In addition, effective classroom management includes teachers’ organizational and group management methods that maximize pupils’ task behaviours as well as counseling and behavioural methods which includes examining and correcting pupils’ inappropriate behaviours (Muli, 2005; Iqbal, 2005; Harris & Muijs, 2005; Margaret, 2014).

Three types of classroom management style that teachers can adopt have been identified by Lewin et al. (1939). These are authoritarian leadership, permissive leadership and democratic leadership. As identified by Margaret (2014), the authoritarian leadership is the centre of all powers and directs firmly the action of pupils. He plans the class activities by himself and insists that pupils must follow. In his classroom, the teacher adopts a teacher-centred approach with minimal participation of pupils. Pupils are passive learners and they are not allowed to express their views (Bulger et al., 2002; Bush & Crawford, 2012; Harris & Muijs, 2005). In the case of democratic management, teacher never imposes order, learners are free to choose with whom to work, the pupils determine the distribution of tasks, and teacher tries to be objective in giving praise and criticism. The teacher respects the individuality of the pupils and attempts as much as possible to make each pupil feel that he is an important member of the class. Democratic style of leadership encourages participation among the groups and leaders in teaching and learning process. The leaders and subordinates play equal role as there is exchange of thoughts and concepts among pupils and the teacher while communication is multidirectional (Bulger et al., 2002, Evertson & Neal, 2005; Harris & Muijs, 2005; Margaret, 2014). Democratic leaders also tend to be more flexible, responsive to pupils’ needs, are able to motivate pupils to participate in decision-making and encourage initiative of working effectively even in the absence of the leader. The third management also identified among teachers is laissez-faire or permissive. Here, the leader believes there should be no rules and regulations. Margaret (2014) describes laissez-faire classroom management as one where the teacher allows pupils to work and do as they wish with minimum interference. The teacher does not direct or guide pupils’ activities. He is hands-off and allows pupils to make decisions. He does not impose ideas but gives pupils freedom to do what they like (Brophy, 2006; Martin et al., 2003; Okumbe, 2001).

Jones & Jones (2012) submitted that promoting quality education is through effective classroom management which is characterized by creating an environment in which all pupils feel safe and confident. Also, effective classroom management style involves respecting and welcoming the ideas of pupils, valuing their opinions regardless of the correctness and addressing inappropriate behaviour in a positive manner. It becomes imperative for a teacher to demonstrate good and effective classroom management to ensure effectiveness of teaching and learning and overall achievement of learning outcome among pupils (Alimi, et.al. 2011; Anyakoha & Anyanwu, 2006; Bulger, et al., 2002; Edmund & Stough, 2001; Harris & Muijs, 2005; Muli, 2005; Wangui, 2007). Literature pointed out different ways effective teachers can exhibit classroom control for the benefit of the learning and teaching. Bulger et al. (2002), and Jones and Jones (2012) submitted that teachers should create a positive learning environment by conveying their enthusiasm and passion for the teaching and learning activities, maintaining a relationship that will motivate pupils to learn. For example, calling pupils by their names, moving among them to ensure their full concentration and strengthening their participation are all strategies teachers can use to establish a positive relationship and effective control in the classroom. All these actions will motivate pupils to learn and make classroom management stress-free for the teacher. Prior to the above, the study investigates the Effects of Classroom Management on School Pupil’s Performance in Educational District V, Lagos State.

  • Statement of the Problem on Effect Of Tertiary Education Tax Fund on Management

In Nigerian primary schools, the most common problem reported by teachers is those that relate to behavior management in the classroom (Igbo, 2005). The evidence is irrefutable, surveys of graduates‟ education schools indicate that sometimes in an attempt to maintain order in the classroom sometimes teachers can actually make the problem worse which leads to known implications such as; lackadaisical attitude towards learning, loss of interest in the subject and in general a poor academic performance of such a child. Considering this observation, one wonders the extent these teachers are aware of and apply research supported classroom behavior management skills. Over the years there exist a record of poor performance of students in various examinations which are written every year in the country. It has also been observed that students no longer have interest in learning. Since classroom management is a keystone for students learning and has been cited by virtually every researcher and reviewer who looked at the relationship between educational practices and student results (Angell, 1991; Harwood, 1992 et al). If the school authorities and teachers emphasize more on how to implement classroom management skills perhaps these problems stated above could be minimized.

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However, there is a need to determine the strategies teachers perceive to be effective in handling disruptive behavior in primary schools, therefore this research work will look into better ways of implementing effective classroom management which aid in the improvement of pupils performance and also how the interest of pupils in the subject could be regained. In relation to the above highlighted challenges, the researcher as deem it fit to undergo this research work: Effects of Classroom Management on School Pupil’s Performance in Educational District V, Lagos State.

  • Purpose of the Study of the Effect Of Tertiary Education Tax Fund on Management

The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of classroom management (CM) on improving pre-school pupil’s behavior and enhancing their performance in Educational District V, Lagos State. The following objectives will also be reviewed:

  1. To identify the impact of teachers managementon classroom management to improve pre-school pupil’s
  2. To identify the problems of classroom management techniques on pre-school pupil’s
  • To identify the impact of classroom management on the gender representation of male and female pre-school pupil’s performance.

1.4   Research Questions

  1. Does teachers’ classroom management technique adopted in classroom management affect the pre-school pupil’s performance in Educational District V, Lagos State?
  2. What is the gender representation of male and female pre-school pupil’s on classroom management and the pupil’s performance in Educational District V, Lagos State?
  • Is environmental factor among the factors affecting classroom management techniques on pre-school pupil’s performance in Educational District V, Lagos State?

 

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1.5   Research Hypotheses on the Effect Of Tertiary Education Tax Fund on Management

Ho1:  There is no significant difference between the teachers’ management of the classroom on the pre-school pupils performance in Educational District V, Lagos State.

Ho2:  There is no significant difference between the gender representation of male and female pupil’s on classroom management and pre-school pupil’s performance in Educational District V, Lagos State.

Ho3: There is no significant difference between environmental factor and classroom management techniques on the pre-school pupil’s performance in Educational District V, Lagos State.

1.6   Significance of the Study

The result of this study will aid Government, employers, institutions, teachers and pupils in the classroom management of schools in Lagos, Nigeria. This study will be beneficial to the school authorities and help to curb poor classroom management by accessing their weaknesses and by strategical adopting relevant techniques in other to improve classroom management and its effect on pre-school pupil’s performance in schools. It will also help pre-school pupil’s to make necessary adjustment and adopting of new techniques to improve their performance and reduce their lackadaisical attitude towards learning.

1.7   Scope of the Study

This research work investigates the effects of classroom management on pre-school pupil’s performance in Educational District V, Lagos State. The study covers five (5) primary schools in Educational District V, Lagos State.

1.8    Limitations on the study

The Researcher would have liked to cover all primary schools in Educational District V, Lagos State, but due to insufficient time and finance, the study is restricted to five primary schools in Lagos State. Another Constraint is the limited availability of materials used in the findings of the study.

1.9  Operational Definition of Terms

Teacher: A person who plans, organizes and controls the pupil’s activity and consequently appears in the position of a leader.

Pupils’: Peoples from dissimilar background, varied interest, of wide- ranging behaviour and different abilities to learn.

Classroom Management: An act teachers’ take to maintain order in the classroom. Classroom management is an extensive and essential component that expresses how a teacher manages the learning activities, the pupils’ behaviour and other social rapport in the classroom.

Classroom Behaviour Management: An act of managing lackadaisical attitude towards learning, loss of interest in subjects and in general.

Teachers Efficiency: An act to measure how well a teacher is able to cope with the demand of the responsibilities saddled on him and the learners’ outcome.

Pupil’s Performance: is the measurement of the amount of academic content a pupil learns in a given time frame.

Classroom: A classroom is a room in a school where lessons take place.

Education: the act of teaching knowledge to others and the act of receiving knowledge from someone else

Classroom Environment: the physical, social, psychological, and intellectual conditions that characterize an instructional setting.

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