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This study investigated the impact of training and motivation on productivity among lecturers of public universities in Lagos State. Descriptive survey research design and Pearson’s product moment correlation statistical tool were adopted for the study. The population of this study comprises all lecturers of public universities of Lagos State. 210 lecturers were selected for the study though simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire was used as the instrument for the data collection which was based on impact of training and extrinsic motivation among lecturers in Lagos State public universities. This finding indicates that there is no significant influence on the job training and lecturers’ productivity in public Universities of Lagos State, there was no significant relationship between off the job training and productivity among lecturers of public Universities, there was no significant influence of extrinsic motivational strategies on the productivity of lecturers in Lagos State Public Universities. The study recommends that tertiary institutions should adequate training (on the job, off the job and refresher training) to lecturers. This will increase their effectiveness and efficiency in the instructional process. University management should see to the regular payment of salary as well as other bonuses to the lecturers.  

Keywords: Productivity. Training, Extrinsic Motivation, Universities and Effectiveness



Title                                                                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                                                                                  v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vii


  • Background to the Study                                                                                     1
  • Statement of the Problem                                                                              4
  • Purpose of the Study             4
  • Research Questions             5
  • Research Hypotheses             5
  • Significant of the Study             5
  • Scope of the Study                         6
  • Limitation on the Study                                     6

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                 6


2.1       Conceptual Framework                                                                                               8

2.1.1    Meaning and concept of Training                                                                               8

2.1.2    Needs and Objectives of Training                                                                              10

2.1.3    Steps in Lecturers’ Training Process                                                                           13

2.1.4    Purpose of Lecturers’ Training                                                                                   15

2.1.5    Training Delivery Methods                                                                                         16

2.1.6  Measuring Training Effects                                                                 17

2.1.7 Benefits of Lecturers’ Training                                                             17

2.1.8 Types of Training                                                                                 19

2.1.9 Meaning and Concept of Training                                                                   21

2.1.10 Types of Motivation                                                                           23

2.1.11 Meaning and Concept of Extrinsic Motivation                                               24

2.1.12 Concept of Lecturers Productivity                                                      25

2.1.13 Training and Lecturers Productivity                                                    26

2.2     Theoretical Framework                                                                        27

2.2.1  Herzberg Two-Factor Theory                                                               27

2.2.2   Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory                                                                            31

2.2.3   Douglas McGregor Theory                                                                                          33

2.2.4   Maslow Hierarchy of Needs                                                                                        35

2.2.5  Reinforcement Theory                                                                                                  37

2.3    Empirical Review                                                                                                           38

2.4  Appraisal of Related Literature                                                               41


3.1     Research Design                                                                                  42

3.2     Population of the Study                                                                      42

3.3     Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                         43

3.4     Research Instrument                                                                            43

3.5     Validity of Instruments                                                                       43

3.6     Reliability of Instrument                                                                     43

3.7     Procedure for Data Collection                                                             44

3.8     Method of Data Analysis                                                                     44


4.1       Analysis of Demographic Data                                                                                  45     

4.2       Analysis of Respondent’s Responses                                                                         47

4.3       Test of Hypotheses                                                                                                     57

4.4       Discussion of Findings                                                                                              60 


5.1.      Summary of the Study                                                                                                62

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  63

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                                      64

5.4      Suggestions for Further Study                                                                                     64

Reference                                                                                                                    66

Appendix                                                                                                                    68



  • Background to the Study

Manpower training and motivation among lecturers are receiving considerable level of interest among researchers and practitioners as significant factors in attainment of higher educational goals and objectives (Uyeri, 2008). This is not unconnected with the fact that the productivity of lecturers is measured based on the skills, knowledge and competence they bring to the table in order to accomplish the goals and objectives of higher education. Thus, an increasing interest by the Nigeria government to fund staff development programs as well as research proposals more especially in universities via TETFund and other similar interventions complemented by private organisations, companies and development partners across the globe. A comprehensive framework to guide and motivate lecturers to key into available staff development funding opportunities to train and be retrained by the management in order to update their skills and competence needed for effective knowledge transfer.

Universities like other tertiary institutions are witnessing rapid changes and increasing complexity in their activities coupled with the need to ensure optimum productivity among lecturers which is paramount for the maintenance of high standard in terms of service delivery (Pynes, 2009). Thus, manpower training and development of lecturers whom the huge responsibility of furthering educational goals must be a top priority. Uyeri (2016) pointed out that, lecturers training programs are considered very crucial, they are planned activities which focuses on enhancing the conceptual skills of lecturers in order to possess the necessary abilities to handle complex situations and become more productive. Some of the strategies used for manpower development includes; induction training, conferences, workshops, seminars, et cetera. Therefore, manpower training programs provide good opportunities for lecturers to become successful academics. It also inspires lecturers towards hard work, fills the gap of previous shortcomings and create an opportunity for future research development. Akinlabi and Fakunmoji (2014) stressed that, productivity level of lecturers is not only a function of qualification and competence but also of motivation.


Motivation here means the way and manner in which an individual or groups of individuals are inspired to behave in a desired manner with a view or intent to receive some positive rewards or satisfy certain needs. Uzoma (2013) define motivation as the intention of achieving a goal, an ability to change behavior, that inner directing drive leading to goal directed behavior towards attaining a goal. Emphasizing the importance of motivation, Machado, Soares, Brites, Ferreir and Gouveia (2011) maintained that, it is not just about working with teaching and other staff but also about working for the good of the faculty. Therefore, high level of motivation can trigger the commitment of lecturers to become more productive.

Productivity is described as the optimal utilization of resources in the production of goods and rendering of services that meets predetermined objectives (Bawa, 2017). However, productivity as a concept depends on the context in which it is employed meaning it does not have a singular definition criterion, measure or operational definition. Work productivity is usually multi-dimensional and it is generally not possible to measure all dimensions. Savermann (2016) observed that, in reality it is difficult to assess workers’ productivity using just one measure. This is because worker jobs can include one or several tasks. In relation to university setting, lecturers conduct research, are involved in teaching, and perform administrative task.  Each of these in turn, can be evaluated with separate performance measures for each relevant dimension. Therefore, university lecturers’ productivity can either be administrative, teaching productivity or research productivity. Research productivity is typically defined by the number of publications in academic refereed journals and scholarly books.

Victor and Jonathan (2014) examined extrinsic motivation and productivity of lecturers in higher education. Findings of the study revealed that encouragement, appreciation on genuine effort, award of impressive titles and acknowledgement on achievements, paychecks, performance bonuses, praise or some other form of recognition. Extrinsic motivation dont occur naturally with the behavior or results; instead someone introduces these rewards (Aworemi,2011). Being those factors that induces action in employees, extrinsic motivational factors explains what employees are motivated to accomplish, how they will attempt to accomplish it, how hard they will work to do so and when they are likely to stop.

There are speculations by both the University staff and the public that Universities do not give much attention for a well-defined and sustained manpower training programs for lecturers in order to improve their productivity (Uyeri,2016). Regular training programs for lecturers provide them with the necessary job knowledge, skills and ability and competency that is relevant for a smooth career of a lecturer. Further, they added that the personality of the lecturers is reshaped, their attitudes are properly shaped, their working habits are reformed and their personality is built through training programs. According to Pynes (2008), training seeks to change the skills, proficiency, job knowledge, or attitudes of employees. The training program may be focused on improving a lecturer’s self-awareness and competency. It can be used to expertise in one or more areas. Training and development increase an individual’s motivation to perform his or her job well. The works of Oguntimenhin and Akinyemi (2014) pointed the functions of in-service training to cover: increased productivity and performance, enhancement in work quality, improved skills, knowledge, better understanding and attitudes. Benedicta Appiah (2012) pointed out that training of lecturers enhances knowledge for job, skills, attributes and competencies and ultimately lecturers’ performance and productivity.


Therefore, it is in the light of the aforementioned issues that this research work intended to find out the impact of training and motivation on the productivity of lecturers in public universities in Lagos state, Nigeria.

  • Statement of the Problem

Public universities own a diverse human resource that are ready to complete each assigned job. Many lecturers still work with a capacity lower than their actual capacity. Despite trying to persuade and create the best conditions to promote their productivity, many lecturers again fail. The reason is that they lack training to perform required tasks. Most lecturers in Nigeria universities are uninspired and unmotivated. This motivation causes a brain drain problem and makes it difficult for professional teaching in the faculties and disciplines.


However, the government has put in place many interventions such as increase in book and research allowances and other allowances to motivate lecturers’ yet current evidence showed that lecturers are still ill-motivated and dissatisfied with regards to conditions of services. The allowances of lecturers seem to be discouraging, lack of accommodation, delay in payment of meagre allowances, delay in promotion, stoppage of abroad for further studies have probably lead to lecturers’ job dissatisfaction. Therefore, it become necessary to embark on a research on the impact of training and extrinsic motivation on productivity among lecturers of public universities in Lagos state.

  • Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of training and extrinsic motivation on the productivity among lecturers in public universities in Lagos state. Its specific objectives are:

  1. To find out the impact of on the job training on the productivity of lecturers in public universities in Lagos state.
  2. To examine the result of off the job training on the productivity of lecturers in public universities in Lagos state.
  • To determine the aftermath of extrinsic motivational strategies on the productivity of lecturers in public universities in Lagos state.
    • Research Questions

The following research questions were raised based on the purpose of the study;

  1. Is there any relationship between on the job training and productivity of lecturers in public universities in Lagos state?
  2. Is there any relationship between off the job training and productivity of lecturers in public universities in Lagos state?
  • Is there any relationship between extrinsic motivational strategies and productivity of lecturers in public universities in Lagos state?
    • Research Hypotheses

Based on research questions, the following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

HO1: There is no significant relationship between on the job training and productivity of lecturers in public universities in Lagos state.

HO2: There is no significant relationship between off the job training and productivity of lecturers in public universities in Lagos State.

HO3: There is no significant relationship between extrinsic motivational       strategies and productivity of lecturers in public universities in Lagos state.

  1.6 Significance of the Study

It is expected that the outcome of this study will help lecturers of public universities in Lagos state, gain a healthy view of the relevance of training and extrinsic motivation on lecturers’ productivity and job performance now and in the future. It will enlighten lecturers on the aftermath of on the job and off the job training as these are techniques through which lecturers acquire relevant skills, knowledge and attitude at their actual work. It will help lecturers and educational stakeholders in universities, especially those in public universities in Lagos state to find out the various extrinsic motivational strategies and how impactful it is to their productivity.

  1.7     Scope of the Study

The research work focused on the impact of training and extrinsic motivation among lecturers in public universities in University of Lagos, Akoka, and Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State.

 1.8 Limitations on the Study

During the course of this research study, a lot of constraints and limitations were encountered. Collection of primary data for this study is a major constraint as a researcher has to be on the field personally during the data collection process. Time factor and financial constraints were major challenges during investigation. Balancing this study with normal academic work is a challenge to the researcher.

1.9 Operational Definitions of Terms

Definitions of words are not according to dictionary meaning but according to usage by the researcher in the study.

Training: The process of learning the skills you need for a particular job.

Motivation: It’s the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal oriented behavior.

Extrinsic Motivation: It is a goal oriented behavior driven by external rewards.

Productivity: The quality of being able to generate an outcome desired and beyond.

Lecturer: A lecturer is someone who stands up in front of a class and gives an organized talk designed to teach you something.

Impact: It means to give a quality to something.

TetFund: Tertiary Education Trust Fund

Service Delivery: It is the process of instruction between the lecturer and the students, as well his interaction with other staffs.

Research Productivity: It’s defined by the number of publications in academic refereed journals and scholarly books.

Teaching Productivity: It’s the teacher’s efficiency in the teaching and learning process.

Administrative Productivity: It is the teacher or lecturer efficiency in the management of academic matters.

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