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This study examined the covid-19, Virtual Learning and the academic performance of students in Lagos State Secondary Schools using Green Spring Schools Lekki, Lagos as a case study. The study focused on the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on Education. It examined the impact of virtual learning on academic performance and investigated the extent to which Covid-19 and Virtual Learning impacted students’ academic performance. Simple random sampling was used in the study as Teachers and Student of GreenSpring British School Lagos form the population of the study .174 questionnaires was issued to the respondent, however 155 questionnaires was retrieved and validated for the study. Data was presented and analyzed using frequency and tables. Chi-Square was used to test if there’s any significant impact of covid-19 and Virtual Learning on the academic performance of students. Findings from the study revealed that virtual learning helped in closing of the gap learning during the pandemic crisis. Virtual learning help students to have access to unlimited source of information; reveals connection between subjects, promotes critical thinking and encourages students’ way of learning. The study recommends therefore that Curriculum Planners and Educational Boards should ensure that they incorporate Virtual Learning Courses at all levels of education as this is the terrain of advanced countries and also Teachers should be trained on the use of Virtual Learning software and how to manage Virtual Learning environment in order to promote student academic performance.


Title Page        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Declaration      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –            ii

Certification    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –            iii

Dedication      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –         vi

Table of Contents       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –          vii


1.1       Background of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –            1

1.2       Statement of the Problem       –           –           –           –           -.           –          4

1.3       Purpose of the Study  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.4       Research Questions     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.5.     Research Hypotheses-        –    –           –           –           –           –           –           6

1.6       Significance of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           6

1.7       Scope of the Study     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.8       Limitations of the Study         –           –           –           –           –           –          7

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms         –           –           –           –           –          7


2.1       Conceptual Framework           –           –           –           –           –           –          9

2.2       Theoretical Framework           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

2.3       Empirical Studies-          –        –           –           –           –           –           –           25

2.4       Appraisal of Reviewed Literature      –           –           –           –           –           26


3.1       Research Design         –           –           –           –           –           –           –            27

3.2       Population of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           27

3.3       Sample and Sampling Technique        –           –           –           –           –           28

3.4       Research Instruments  –           –           –           –           –           –            –          29

3.5       Validity of the Research Instruments –           –           –           –           –           29

3.6       Reliability of the Instruments –           –           –           –           –           –           30

3.7       Data Collection Procedure      –           –           –           –           –           –          30

3.8       Method of Data Analysis       –           –           –           –           –           –          30


4.1       Analysis of Demographic Data of Respondents        –           –           –           33

4.2       Analysis of Research Questions         –           –           –           –           –          34

4.3       Test of Hypotheses     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41


5.1       Summary of the Study            –           –           –           –           –           –           46

5.2       Conclusion      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

5.3       Recommendations      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           47

References –    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49

Appendix        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           54



1.1 Background of the Study

The Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic has created the largest disruption of education systems in human history, affecting almost every learner especially those in secondary schools all over the world. This has brought far-reaching changes in all aspects of our lives. Social distancing and restrictive movement policies have significantly disturbed traditional educational practices. Reopening of schools after relaxation of restriction is another challenge with many new standard operating procedures put in place. Ashton (2020), Corona virus (COVID-19) is a large family of viruses known to cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to acute respiratory tract infection. The severity of the infection may be visible as pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, and even death. In 1960 first case of corona virus was notified and Canadian study in 2001 was identified approximately 500 patients as Flu-like system in which 17 to 18 cases were confirmed as infected with Corona virus by polymerase chain reaction. These include livestock, birds, and mammals such as bats, camels, masked palm civets, dogs, mice, and cats, (W.H.O).


Until the outbreak of SARS, this group of viruses was greatly overlooked. However, since the SARS and MERS outbreaks, these viruses have been studied in greater detail, propelling the vaccine research. The World Health Organization (WHO), in December 2019, received reports on clusters of pneumonia cases of unknown causes in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China. The Chinese authorities subsequently identified a novel strain of Coronavirus (SARS-COV 2) as the causative agent. Sequel to the advice of the International Health Regulation Emergency Committee, the Director-General of the WHO declared the Corona virus outbreak as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020 and characterized it as a pandemic on 11 March 2020. The outbreak has been reported in all continents, with first case in Africa reported in Egypt in February 2020. Globally, over 2.6 million confirmed cases and over 186,000 deaths have been recorded. Nigeria is one of the 210 countries affected globally.

After Nigeria witnessed her first case, it was pertinent for Nigeria government to give quick attention to situation. The closure of schools, colleges, and universities by the Federal and State government was an urgent need of the current situation which prevailed in most States in Nigeria. Nigerian Government started taking preventive decisions on Corona virus just after WHO recognized it as a pandemic disease. However, the shutdown of most schools and colleges in Lagos, Kano FCT and other states, had a tremendous effect on the academic syllabus and interrupted the academic year. Most schools had to concentrate on scheduling their final exams before the lockdown commencement on March 8, 2020. Affected schools and institutions had to cancel or reschedule exam dates, and other school activities, so as to curtail the spread of the virus.

One of the major consequences of our response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been a disruption to traditional classroom learning and instruction. Bonk (2020) in his assertion says, in many ways, the move to remote learning has highlighted what’s essential in the classroom (and what’s not). The transition was not easy. A national health emergency in the spring forced the move online, and although educators had more time to plan for online and hybrid classes this fall, they faced many unknowns: changing rates of infection, chaotic decision-making, and more, Bonk (2020).

Within a short span of the corona virus pandemic, many researchers have shared their works on teaching and learning in different ways. Several schools, colleges and universities have discontinued face-to-face teachings geared by the fear of losing 2020 academic year or even more in the coming future. The need of the hour is to innovate and implement alternative educational system and assessment strategies, Thamarana, S. (2016). The corona virus pandemic has provided us with an opportunity to pave the way for introducing digital learning in order to bridge the gap in learning thus the birth of virtual learning. According to Ruben (2016), Virtual learning is a type of learning that happens outside the classroom, with digital-based equipment and the learner’s autonomy guaranteed. Cesar (2015) says It is a learning experience that is enhanced through utilizing computers and/or the internet both outside and inside the facilities of the educational organization or conventional classroom setting. Invariably the learner does not have face-face contact with either the teacher or peers. The teaching activities are carried out online whereby the teacher and lwarners are physically separated, Cesar (2015).

In addition to the above definitions, Shclup hens (2009) says Virtual learning is designed to extend educational experiences. It does not try to replicate them. In virtual learning environments, students access resources and interact in ways they would not or could not in the physical classroom. Many educators use virtual learning and have been for a while. Students engage in core learning processes and outcomes in a virtual learning instructional sequence, which will require different types of computer technologies. For the most part, teachers now learn new strategies primarily for the brick and mortar classroom. The development of instructional knowledge and strategies needs to be integrated with virtual learning as a pedagogical approach—one in which the classroom walls come down and individual learning pathways for students emerge in virtual spaces, Ruben (2016).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The educational sector has witnessed a new exploration geared by the fast changing society. This is to enable them meet up with the challenges brought by the Covid-19 pandemic which has shook the crannies of the world and every aspect of the economy. The education sector has move from the conventional classroom teaching to virtual learning to bridge the gap created by the Covid-19 Pandemic which affected the academic year.

Although this innovation is quiet impressive but has its limitations as most parents are not able to afford it for their children which impede their academic performance. Also the inability of many schools to follow this trend by developing virtual learning packages which would enhance the knowledge of their student makes it more frictional in obtaining quality academic performance of student. Hence, this study seeks to examine Covid-19, Virtual learning and academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Lagos State.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of virtual learning on students’ academic performance in Lagos state secondary schools. Its major objectives are;

  1. To examine the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on virtual learning among secondary school students in Lagos state.
  2. To find out the impact of virtual learning on the academic performance of secondary school students in Lagos state.
  • To determine various virtual learning strategies to be adopted to enhance the academic performance of secondary school students in Lagos state.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised:

  1. Does Covid-19 have any effect on the academic performance of secondary school students in Lagos state?
  2. How does virtual learning affect academic performance of secondary school students in Lagos state?
  • To what extent does Covid-19 and Virtual learning impact the academic performance of secondary school student in Lagos state?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho1: There is no significant difference between the effect of Covid-19 and students’ performance in Lagos secondary schools, Nigeria.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between Virtual Learning and Academic Performance of students in Lagos state secondary schools, Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study in its significance will reveal the effect of covid-19 on academic performance of secondary school student. It would expose how far and well virtual learning have been imbibed and accepted by secondary school student. It will enlighten the teachers on the need of stepping up their professional skills in order to adapt to this fast changing terrain in education. It will awaken the awareness of school owners on the way forward to ensure that during this pandemic they come up with strategies to enhance the effective use of virtual learning as a tool for instruction in schools.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The geographical scope of this study was delimited to all the secondary schools in Lagos state using GreenSprings British School (education district III),12a Reeve Rd, Ikoyi 106104, Victoria Island, Lagos as a case study. The study examines Covid-19, Virtual Learning and Academic Performance of secondary school students in Lagos state. Lagos state is made up of six(6) education districts.

1.8 Limitations on the Study

During the course of the study challenges encountered were exclusively but not delimited to the following numerous. Challenges such as attitude of the respondents, finance, and inadequate support from research assistance.

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Students: A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving employment in a desired field (

Effect: According to Collins dictionary, an effect is a change, reaction, or impression that is caused by something or is the result of something

Covid-19: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is defined as illness caused by a novel corona virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; formerly called 2019-CoV), which was first identified amid an outbreak of respiratory illness cases in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.

Virtual Learning: Virtual learning is a learning experience that is enhanced through utilizing computers and/or the internet both outside and inside the facilities of the educational organization or conventional classroom setting. The teaching activities are carried out online whereby the teacher and learners are physically separated (in terms of place, time, or both).

Academic Performance: Academic performance have been defined and explained by several authors. According to Narad and Abdullah (2016) academic performance is the knowledge gained which is assessed by marks by a teacher and/or educational goals set by students and teachers to be achieved over a specific period of time.

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