INFLUENCE OF TELEVISED AGGRESSION AND PORNOGRAPHY ON ADOLESCENTS’ SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT AND COUNSELLING IMPLICATIONS

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ABSTRACT

This study examined effect of televised aggression and pornography on adolescents’ social adjustment and counselling implications. The specific objectives were set to investigate the effect of televised aggression on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government, to examine the impact of televised pornography on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government and to assess the counselling implications of televised aggression and pornography on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government.

In order to achieve the set objectives, research questions and hypotheses were formulated accordingly, and the study was anchored on cultivation theory, framing theory and social cognitive theory. Data were sourced through the use of questionnaire from hundred (100) respondents, wherein ninety-six (96) returned successfully. The data were analysed using the frequency percentage and chi-square statistical method.

The study findings showed that televised pornography and televised aggression has an impact on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government. however, counselling implications of televised aggression and pornography also influence social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page   i

Declaration ii

Certification iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgements v

Abstract vi

Table of Contents vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem 4

1.3 Objective of the Study 5

1.4 Research Questions 5

1.5 Statement of the hypotheses 6

1.6      Significance of the Study    6

1.7 Scope of the Study 7

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 8

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Conceptual Review 9

2.2 Theoretical Review 12

2.3 Empirical Review 17

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design 20

3.2 Population of the Study 20

3.3 Sampling Size and Sampling Technique 20

3.4 Reliability and Validity of the Questionnaire 21

3.5 Administration of Research Instrument 21

3.6 Method of Data Collection 21

3.7 Method of Data Analysis   22

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

 

4.1 Classification of Data According to the Respondents 23

4.2 Analysis of personal data of respondents 24

4.3 Analysis and presentation of data to research questions 25

4.4      Analysis of hypotheses 32

4.5 Discussion of Findings 41

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUDING REMARKS

5.1 Summary 42

5.2 Conclusions 43

5.3 Recommendations 44

5.4 Suggestion for further study 44

References 45

Appendix 48

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the study

Media is deeply intertwined with our lives from childhood and can influence every facet of life, from defining successes or failures to clothing choices or even what individuals should desire to achieve. The media is that a large portion of the populace consumes and is highly influential on societal standards and culture. Media not only represents and guides society but also reflects and cultivates dominant cultural ideologies (Signorelli et al., 2019).

Therefore, the content included within the media not only influences audiences but can also influence the current cultural values and ideals and has the potential to shape society’s perspective on how to approach and interpret the worldview around us (Lucia, 2021).

Among the kinds of media, electronic media plays a strong role in constructing and reconstructing ideas and opinions and reframing the various understandings of every individual throughout life (Muhammad & Bushra, 2015). The world is constantly socially revolutionising.

Individuals have great influences from different sources of communication, performing a very strong role not only in the development of mature persons’ thinking but also in youngsters (Chidiadi, 2017). Among electronic media, television is the most prominent.

Since the advent of television, it has remained one of the most influential mediums among the mass media, especially to youngsters. It is considered a credible source of information due to the full colour, action-packed, audio and visual strength, coupled with actors and presenters’ acts.

This makes television a realistic medium for the audience. It carries the audiences along through drama, film, documentaries and other beautiful presentations and shows, thereby entertaining, educating, and informing (Chidiadi, 2017).

Television’s influence on people’s lives stems not only from its three roles as a medium of information, education and entertainment but also many groups that have taken solace in television and its programmes as means of relaxation, recreation, withdrawal, goal-setting and socialisation (Chidiadi, 2017). According to recent statistics, every individual spends almost three hours on television daily (Statista, 2022).

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Television contributes to the socialisation and the transmission of culture. According to Zins et al. (2014), the teaching and learning of adolescents have strong social, emotional, and academic components. It has been observed that adolescents typically learn not only from their teachers in schools, in the company of their peers and families, but also with several gadgets and television in particular and sometimes, aggression or violent programmes are shown on television (Chidiadi, 2017).

Aggression is an act accompanied by an attack or force inflicting injury or pain on another person. In recent times, it appears that the rate at which aggressive behaviour is aired on television is increasing. Muhammad and Bushra (2015) noted that different television stations show violent and horror movies that youngsters often like to copy and form attitudes about life without weighing the hazardous effects of such violent movies on one’s behaviour (Chidiadi, 2017).

 

Aggression could pose a harmful risk to youngsters (Onyekosor & Nwankpa, 2014). Exposure to television violence leads to real-life aggression (Okpala, Awujo, & Okpala, 2012). Also, violence on the streets increases the tendency of youngsters to act aggressively after viewing violence on tv programs (Chidiadi, 2017).

Furthermore, sexualised content has increased in both traditional and streamed movies and television. Roughly 70% of television programs included either visual or verbal depictions of sexual content. Additionally, pornography is more regularly discussed in public than in recent years and has become increasingly present in television shows, for instance, yearly Big Brother Naija show (Attwood & Smith, 2014). Pamela Paul (2010) asserted that the aesthetics, values, and standards of pornography have seeped into mainstream popular culture.

The average age of first exposure to pornography is 1; however, by age 14, almost 80% of teens have viewed pornographic content (Dwulit & Rzymski, 2019). Bitfender, a parental internet control business, conducted a study and found that 10-year-olds make up 10% of the visitors to porn sites (Muresan, 2016).

 

However, a national survey of adolescents showed that 28% of older teens (14–17) intentionally seek pornographic media compared to only 8% of young teens (10–13). On 3 average, adolescents who consume pornographic media do so once per week (Dwulit & Rzymski, 2019).

According to statistics shared by Pornhub, a major online website with explicit content, the group of pornography consumers is steadily increasing, and it is mostly represented by men (over 70% of all users) and young adults below 34 years old. In line with this data, over 70% of adults in the study, aged 18-30 years old, admit to watching online pornography at least once a month, while nearly 60% of college students admitted to its consumption once a week. Adolescents also constitute an important group of intentional online viewers of pornography, with user rates (Dwulit & Rzymski, 2019).

Exposure to pornography and other sexualised media affects self-representation (Vandenbosch et al., 2015), self-image, relationships and sexual satisfaction in relationships (Dwulit & Rzymski, 2019). Viewers of pornography are also more likely to report a higher sexual self-efficacy, which in turn, has a positive correlation with producing and sharing sexually explicit user-generated content (Sirianni & Vishwanath, 2012). Further, pornography exposure also increases the likelihood of engaging in high-risk sexual activities (Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009), substance abuse, and delinquent behaviour such as violence. (Lucia, 2021). Thus, it is imperative to assess the influence of televised aggression and pornography on adolescents’ social adjustment and counselling implications.

1.2      Statement of the problem

The introduction of the mass media and the incessant display of television aggressive and pornographic movies and shows to a great extent, have brought rapid changes to the social lives of adolescents in every facet of the Nation. It is, therefore, not surprising that aggressive behavioural disorders have been prevalent in society since motion pictures displaying violent and pornographic acts were first introduced. Many youths today have become aggressive, bullies, fighters, armed robbers, heady, and obstinate, showing unrestrained disrespect to parents, teachers and elders both at home and school. Many adolescents are corrupt, wicked and immoral because of what they watch and learn from corrupt television programmes, films, movies and on the internet. Youngsters nowadays watch more pornographic films than they study in their books. These results in their becoming prostitutes, sexual abusers and harassers, and deprived and perverted individuals. Some become rascals, radicals, weird in dressing and appearances and maladjusted to the social norms of the larger society (Eremie & Achi, 2021). Hence, this study is set to assess the influence of televised aggression and pornography on adolescents’ social adjustment and counselling implications.

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1.3  Objectives of the study

This study aims to examine the influence of televised aggression and pornography on adolescents’ social adjustment and counselling implications

The specific objectives of the study are:

  1. To investigate the effect of televised aggression on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government
  2. To examine the impact of televised pornography on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government
  • To assess the counselling implications of televised aggression and pornography on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government

1.4 Research questions

The research questions are:

  1. What are the effects of televised aggression on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government
  2. What are theimpacts of televised pornography on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government
  • What are the counselling implications of televised aggression and pornography on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government
    • Statement of the Hypotheses

H0:  Televised aggression does not have an effect on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government.

H1: Televised aggression has an effect on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government

H0: Televised pornography does not have an impact on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government

H2: Televised pornography has an impact on the social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government

H0: Counselling implications of televised aggression and pornography influence social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government

H3: Counselling implications of televised aggression and pornography do not influence social adjustments of adolescents in the Ojo local government

1.6  Significance of the study

This research work will be extremely beneficial to students, researchers, schools, media practitioners, educators, counsellors, parents and guardians, and policy-maker in learning about the influence of televised aggression and pornography on adolescents’ social adjustment and counselling implications.

This study will depict in-depth knowledge of television aggression and pornography, the sociocultural impacts on adolescents’ behaviour, the consequences on lifestyles and adopted behaviours while growing, and the counselling implications of indulging in violent and sexual acts, which can assist policymakers in fine-tunning their policies in curbing this immoral acts on the television and other related devices.

This study will serve as an eye-opener for parents and guardians about how young people perceive violent and sexual acts and how they can orient their youngsters about it. This research will also serve as a springboard for future academics interested in conducting empirical research on the influence of televised aggression and pornography on adolescents’ social adjustment and counselling implications or other areas of life.

Notwithstanding, this study will indisputably broaden students’ horizons and contribute to their prior knowledge of televised violence and pornography.

1.7 Scope of the study

This study focuses on the influence of televised aggression and pornography on adolescents’ social adjustment and counselling implications. This research work would be delimited to Ojo local government, Lagos state. This descriptive research seeks to obtain information directly from the respondents (parents) and describe the phenomenon.

The sample size for this study would be 100. Also, this study will adopt convenience sampling, a non-probability sampling technique, while data will be analysed using the chi-square method.

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