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This research examined the impact of qualified teachers on the academic performance of accounting students in Lagos State senior secondary schools .

A descriptive survey research design was used in conducting the research as a questionnaire was administered to collect information from the respondents. The study population consists of selected respondents in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos state.

A sample of 50 respondents where selected. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution tables and chi-square test to analyze the formulated hypothesis.

The result obtained from this hypothesis one indicates that there is no significance with teachers’ qualification of the student’s academic performance, X value is 78.437, while the critical value at 52 degrees of freedom and 0.05 significant level is 69.832, with X value greater than the critical or table value.

The result in hypothesis two shows that there is a significant relationship between accounting teachers’ qualifications and the academic performance of accounting students in Lagos state senior secondary schools, with an X value is 34.648, while the critical value at 52 degrees of freedom and 0.05 significant level is 69.832, with X value lesser than the critical or table value.

Finally, the study recommends that specific teachers should acquire the necessary qualifications needed to become qualified teachers so that it can have an impact on the academic performance of their students positively, teachers should give assistance to students in their classroom, teachers should also assign responsibilities to students to make them have full participation in the learning process, teachers should also make their classroom management better by using the resources provided by the school effectively and efficiently.



Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of contents vi


  • Background of Study   1
  • Statement of the Problem 8
  • Purpose of Study 9
  • Research Questions 9
  • Research Hypothesis 10
  • Significance of the study 10
  • Delimitation of the study 11
  • Limitation of the study 11
  • Definition of Terms 11


2.0 Introduction 12

2.1 Conceptual review 12

2.1.1 who is a teacher 12

2.1.2 Qualifications needed for the teaching profession 14

2.1.3 Teachers teaching experience 15

2.1.4 Teachers teaching method 16

2.1.5 Classification of teachers teaching method 18

2.1.6 Teachers subject content knowledge 19

2.1.7 Teachers classroom management 21

2.1.8 Teachers Personality 24

2.1.9 Pedagogy 26

2.1.10 Factors militating against effectiveness of qualified teachers on students academic performance 27

2.2 Theoretical review 29

2.2.1 Formal Theory of Teaching (Philosophical Theory) 29

2.3 Summary of literature review 32




3.0 Introduction 34

3.1 Research design 34

3.2 Population of study 34

3.3 Sample and sampling techniques 35

3.4 Instrument of data  collection 35

3.5 Validity of the Instrument 35

3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 36

3.7 Method of data collection 36

3.8 Method of data analysis 36


4.1 Demographic data 37

4.2 Answering of research questions 39

4.3 Test the null hypothesis 41

4.4 Discussion of the Findings 44


5.1 Summary of the study 45

5.2 Conclusion 46

5.3 Recommendations 46

5.4 Suggestions for further studies 47

5.5 Contributions to knowledge 47

References 48

Appendix 50




1.1 Background of study

Academic performance refers to the extent to which a student achieves desired learning outcomes and meets academic expectations set by their school or educational institution.

According to a study by Ross and colleagues (2016), academic performance is commonly measured by grades, test scores, and other indicators of achievement such as class attendance and participation. Academic performance can also be seen as the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects.

Teachers and education officials typically measure achievement using classroom performance, graduation rates, and results from standardized tests. The performance of the student in a subject is determined by how well the student understands what he or she has been taught and how well the student performs in his or her examination.

Every educational system requires qualified, highly skilled and competent teachers so as to sustain and enhance both the academic performance of the students and other administrative programs.

According to Aristotle Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body, thus it is through education that students acquire the basic skills, knowledge, value, norms, culture and aspirations needed for the sustainable development and stability of a country. Any interactive activity between a teacher and a student is expected to produce a learning outcome in the learner but when such activity fails to produce a change in behavior in the learner then there is a problem.

The teacher is the major manpower saddled with the responsibility of impacting the students with fundamental knowledge through the teaching of the basic concepts from secondary school. Paulo Freire (1921-1997) viewed a teacher as a guide or mentor who helps students develop critical thinking skills, understand social issues, and become agents of change.

He developed his ideas on teaching and learning in the mid-20th century.

This is why Adeniyi(1993) noted that a country’s level of knowledge depends on the quantity of well-qualified teachers. For a teacher to be qualified he or she must have had the minimum academic qualification for teaching in their subject of interest and also a teacher must also have pedagogical training.

The role of teachers in the academic performance of students is a well-researched area, and several studies have demonstrated the critical role that qualified teachers play in improving the academic performance of secondary school students. According to Darling-Hammond (2000), teacher quality is one of the most critical factors that affect student learning and achievement. In her review of the literature, Darling-Hammond found that students who have qualified and experienced teachers tend to perform better academically than students who do not.

There are several ways in which qualified teachers can impact the academic performance of secondary school students. Firstly, qualified teachers have a good understanding of the subject matter they teach and can deliver the content clearly and concisely.

This can help students understand the material better and retain the knowledge for a longer period. Secondly, qualified teachers have good classroom management skills and can create a conducive learning environment that encourages student participation and engagement. This can help students stay focused and motivated, leading to improved academic performance.

In addition to the above, qualified teachers also provide students with support and guidance outside the classroom. Teachers who are knowledgeable about their subject matter can provide students with additional resources and study materials to help them prepare for exams and assignments. Moreover, teachers can provide students with mentorship and career guidance, which can help them make informed decisions about their future academic and career paths.


Several scholars have contributed to the research on the impacts of qualified teachers on the academic performance of secondary school students. One of the most well-known scholars in this area is Linda Darling-Hammond. In her seminal work “Teacher Quality and Student Achievement,” Darling-Hammond (2000) reviews well the literature on the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement. She finds that there is a strong correlation between the two and that teachers who are -qualified, experienced, and have strong subject matter knowledge tend to have a positive impact on student achievement.

Another scholar who has contributed to this area is Eric Hanushek. In his work “The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality,” Hanushek (2011) argues that increasing teacher quality is one of the most effective ways of improving student achievement. He finds that teachers who are in the top 5-10% of their profession can increase student achievement by as much as one full grade level. Moreover, he finds that improving teacher quality has a significant impact on the economic outcomes of students later in life.

A third scholar who has contributed to this area is Thomas Kane. In his work “Teacher Quality, Attrition, and Retention: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment,” Kane et al. (2008) conducted a randomized experiment to evaluate the impact of teacher quality on student achievement.

They found that teachers who were trained in teaching methods that emphasized data-driven instruction and student feedback had a positive impact on student achievement. Moreover, they found that improving teacher quality had a significant impact on teacher retention rates.

In conclusion, the research indicates that qualified teachers play a critical role in improving the academic performance of secondary school students. Teachers who have strong subject matter knowledge, good classroom management skills, and the ability to provide students with support and guidance can have a significant impact on student achievement. The work of scholars such as Linda Darling-Hammond, Eric Hanushek, and Thomas Kane has contributed to our understanding of the importance of teacher quality and the role it plays in improving student achievement

Qualified teachers play a crucial role in the academic performance of students in secondary schools. They are responsible for shaping the future of the students by providing them with the necessary knowledge and skills required for their growth and development. The importance of qualified teachers in secondary schools cannot be overemphasized as they are key to achieving the goals and objectives of education. This paper aims to explore the impacts of qualified teachers on the academic performance of students in secondary schools.

Qualified teachers are defined as individuals who have the necessary educational and professional qualifications required to teach in a particular field. According to UNESCO (2005), a qualified teacher is one who possesses the minimum academic and professional qualifications required for teaching at a particular level, as determined by the national education authorities. The professional qualifications required for teaching include pedagogical training and teaching experience. In addition, qualified teachers are expected to possess subject matter knowledge and skills, classroom management skills, communication skills, and a passion for teaching.

Academic performance, on the other hand, refers to the level of achievement of a student in academic activities. According to Popham (2009), academic performance can be measured through a variety of methods such as tests, assignments, and grades. Academic performance is an important indicator of the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process in secondary schools.

Impacts of qualified teachers on academic performance

There is a significant body of research that supports the positive impacts of qualified teachers on the academic performance of students in secondary schools. The following are some of the impacts of qualified teachers on academic performance:

Improved learning outcomes: Qualified teachers are better equipped to provide effective and efficient instruction to their students. They possess subject matter expertise and pedagogical skills, which enable them to deliver quality instruction to their students. As a result, students are more likely to learn and understand the concepts taught, leading to improved learning outcomes.

A study conducted by Darling-Hammond (2000) found that students who had qualified teachers performed significantly better on standardized tests than those who had unqualified teachers.

Increased motivation: Qualified teachers are more likely to be passionate about teaching and committed to their students’ success. They possess the skills and knowledge required to create a positive learning environment that fosters student motivation. This, in turn, leads to improved academic performance.

A study by Vygotsky (1978) suggests that a student’s motivation to learn is directly related to the quality of instruction they receive.

Reduced absenteeism and dropout rates: Qualified teachers are better equipped to create a positive and engaging learning environment that motivates students to attend school regularly. As a result, students are less likely to be absent from school or drop out. A study by Murnane (2001) found that students who had qualified teachers were less likely to miss school and were more likely to complete their education.

Enhanced critical thinking skills: Qualified teachers are more likely to encourage critical thinking and problem-solving skills in their students. They possess the skills and knowledge required to create challenging and engaging learning experiences that promote critical thinking. This, in turn, leads to improved academic performance. A study by Paul and Elder (2006) suggests that critical thinking skills are essential for academic success and lifelong learning.

Improved social skills: Qualified teachers are more likely to create a positive and inclusive learning environment that promotes social interaction and collaboration among students. This, in turn, leads to improved social skills and emotional intelligence. A study by Elias and Arnold (2006) suggests that social and emotional learning is essential for academic success and overall well-being.

Pedagogy is the combination of teaching methods( what teachers do), learning activities (what teachers ask their students to do) learning assessments ( the assignments, projects, or tasks that measure students’ learning capacity),it is commonly understood as the approach to teaching, it is all the ways instructors and students work with the course content.

The fundamental goal of teachers for their students is to ensure the students are able to do something meaningful with their course content.


Teaching Methods are general principles and management strategies used in the classroom. Your choice of teaching method depends on your philosophy, classroom demography, subject areas and school mission statement. This theory can be categorized based on two major parameters:

  • A teacher-centered approach versus a student-centered approach,
  • High–tech material use versus low–tech material use

A teacher-centered approach to learning takes to its interpretation, that teachers are the main authority figure in a teacher-centered instruction model. Students are viewed as empty vessels who passively receive knowledge from their teachers through lectures and direct instruction, with an end goal of positive results from tests and assessments.


While the student-centered approach to learning still has some similarities with the teacher-centered the teachers are still in authority but the teacher’s primary role is to coach and facilitate students learning and overall comprehension of materials, and to measure student learning through both formal and informal forms of assessment, like projects, students portfolios, and class participation. In the Student-centered classroom, teaching and assessment are connected because student learning is continuously measured.

High Tech approach refers to advancement in technology. Advancement in technology has propelled the educational sector in the last few decades. As the name suggests, the high-tech approach to learning utilizes different technologies to aid students in their classroom learning.

Many educators use computers and tablets in the classroom and others may use the internet to assign assignments.

The internet is also beneficial in a classroom setting as it provides unlimited resources (Access to Knowledge), while technology undoubtedly has changed education, many educators still decide to use a more traditional, Low-tech approach to learning. Some learning styles require a physical presence and interaction between the educator and the student.

Additionally, some research has shown that low-tech classrooms may boost learning. For example, students who take handwritten notes have better recall than students who take typed notes.

Another downside to technology in the classroom may be students exposed to spell check and autocorrect features at an earlier age may be weaker in spelling and writing skills. Ultimately, tailoring the learning experience to different types of learners is incredibly important, and sometimes students work better with a low-tech approach.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

For over a decade, student performance in accounting has kept decreasing in secondary schools as a result of a lack of qualified teachers which is a major contributing factor towards the delivery in class.

Pedagogy is the act of teaching, it shapes teachers’ actions, judgments and teaching strategies by taking into consideration theories of learning, understanding of students and their needs, and the background and interests of individual students. It is aimed at producing teachers with adequate experience and qualifications and to improve the level of learning and performance of students in the educational system.

To improve the capacity of the teachers it is necessary to determine the type of pedagogy needed to teach the students to avoid waste of effort, time, and cost of both material and human resources.

With regards to the study, we identify assessment as the process of evaluating teachers of accounting in secondary schools. In other to assess teachers’ needs, this study employed a descriptive survey design to facilitate data collection geared towards estimating the level of competency the teaching teachers possess when teaching. The goal of this survey-based assessment of teachers’ qualifications is to get a better understanding on the skills needed by teachers to be called qualified and their effect on the academic performance of accounting students in secondary school.

1.3 Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of qualified teachers on the academic performance of accounting students in secondary schools. Specifically, the study was designed to determine the following:

  1. To know the basic skills and qualifications needed to become a qualified teacher.
  2. To know how being a qualified teacher can improve the performance of accounting students in secondary schools
  3. To encourage schools to employ teachers with adequate qualifications and skills to reduce the level of poor performance of students in school.

1.4 Research Questions

Two survey research questions were designed to elicit the impact of qualified teachers on the academic performance of accounting students in secondary school

  1. How does the qualification level of a teacher impact the academic performance of students?
  2. In what ways do highly qualified teachers positively influence student learning outcomes?


1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses that were raised from the research question were tested and the results are as follows:

HO1. Accounting teacher’s qualifications have a positive effect on the performance of accounting students in secondary school

HO2. Accounting Teacher’s qualifications go a long way in determining the performance of accounting students  in secondary schools

1.6 Significance of the Study

Accounting teachers have been in the middle of reform toward an improved performance of the students but for this to be actualized they have to make sure that the right teaching method is used. The importance of this study cannot be undermined.

It is the fact that the result of this study could be useful to the accounting teachers in secondary schools, most educational personnel especially those who will stand in the front of the class to teach should ensure that they strive to acquire the minimum qualification for teaching and also try to have pedagogical training.

The study is aimed at the fact that should a teacher in secondary school be qualified if yes then how can that teacher be able to call him or herself qualified?

Therefore this study will provide important information to both teachers and secondary school authorities which will guide in designing the policy and strategies towards the teaching profession.


1.7 Delimitation of the Study

The proposed study was based in iba local government area of Lagos state. Accounting teachers in secondary schools were considered in the research work

1.8 Limitations of the Study

There is possibility that responses given by respondents may not have been fully reflective of the actual states of affairs. The emotional state of respondents could be hardly be adequately ascertained

1.9 Definition of Terms

Academic Performance: This is the extent to which a student, teacher, or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals and is measured either by continuous assessment or cumulative grade point average (CGPA)

Teacher: A teacher is a person, who provides education for people; one who teaches or instructs. The role of a teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education.

Qualified Teachers: This is a person who has both an academic qualification and proper training in pedagogy. It means recognizing teaching as a full profession that requires specialized training.

  • Pedagogy: These refers to the method of how teachers teach, in theory and in practice. It is formed by an educator’s beliefs concerns the interplay between culture and different and different ways to learn

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