THE IMPACT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION ON SKILL ACQUISITION AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY

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THE IMPACT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION ON SKILL ACQUISITION AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY

ABSTRACT

 This study investigated impact of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university. The population of this study consisted of comprises of all 228 200l – 400l students in Business Education Unit, Department of Educational Management Faculty of Education Lagos State University, however 150 students was drawn out to make up the 150 respondents. A descriptive Survey research design, data were collected from respondent through the administration of (IEESAQ) was used as a data collection tool and it is subjected to reliability test of + 0.73 coefficient, PPMCC was used to test statistics, the findings revealed that entrepreneurship education has impact on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria  simple percentage distribution was used to present data ,it is Recommended that parents should not hesitate to give their moral and especially financial support to interest and student who is ready to start up a business whether as the practical learning of this course or permanent business owner, there is need to provide opportunities for students to rise fund, to enable them stand up and expand their business enterprise in a manners that will be significant to them, and  the curriculum expert should out into consideration that the practical aspect of the course should be done during the second semester vacation of 100levels or 200 levels as the case maybe in order for it not to affect other course learnt in school.

 

 Word Count: 238

 Key words: Entrepreneurship, Education, Skill Acquisition, and Undergraduate Students.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE                                                                                                                             PAGES

Title page

Personal Ethics                                                                                                                        i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                iv

Table of Content                                                                                                                     v

Abstract                                                                                                                                  vi

List of Table                                                                                                                            vii

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study…………………………………………………………..1

1.2 Problem Statement………………………………………………………………….5

1.3 Purpose of the Study………………………………………………………………..7

1.4 Research Questions………………………………………………………………….8

1.5 Research Hypotheses………………………………………………………………..8

1.6 Significance of the Study………………………………………………………….8

1.7 Scope of the Study…………………………………………………………………9

1.8 Limitations on the Study………………………………………………………….9

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms………………………………………………….9

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Conceptual Framework……………………………………………………………11

2.1.1 The Concept of Entrepreneurship………………………………………………11

2.1.2 Types of Entrepreneurship………………………………………………………13

2.1.2.1 Small Business Entrepreneurship……………………………………………..13

2.1.2.2 Scalable Startup Entrepreneurship……………………………………………14

2.1.2.3 Intrapreneurship………………………………………………………………..14

2.1.2.4. Large Company Entrepreneurship……………………………………………14

2.1.2.5 Innovative entrepreneurship……………………………………………………14

2.1.3 Advantages of Entrepreneurship…………………………………………………15

2.1.4 Disadvantages of Entrepreneurship………………………………………………….16

2.1.5 Relationship between small business and entrepreneurship……………………17

2.1.6 Concept of Entrepreneurship Education………………………………………..18

2.2.7 Objective of Entrepreneurship Education……………………………………….22

2.2.8 Entrepreneurship Education and Skills Acquisition……………………………23

2.1.9 The important of Skills Acquisition ……………………………………………..25

2.1.11 The Concept of Self Employed…………………………………………………..28

2.1.12 Advantages of Self-Employment………………………………………………..28

2.1.13 Disadvantages of Self-Employment……………………………………………..29

2.1.14 Curriculum of Entrepreneur and Skills Acquisition…………………………  29

2.1.15 Teaching Strategy and Skill Acquisition………………………………………31

2.1.16 Learning Methods and Skills Acquisition……………………………………. 33

2.2 Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………………….35

2.2.1 Cognitive Approach Theory……………………………………………………..35

2.3 Empirical Review……………………………………………………………………37

2.4 Summary of Literature Review…………………………………………………….42

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design………………………………………………………………………44

3.2 Population of the Study…………………………………………………………….44

3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique…………………………………………………..44

3.4 Research Instrument and Instrumentation……………………………………….   45

3.5 Validity of the Instrument………………………………………………………….45

3.6 Reliability of the Instrument………………………………………………………. 45

3.7 Method of Data Collection ………………………………………………………..45

3.8 Method of Data Analysis…………………………………………………………..46

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1 Descriptive Analysis of Participants………………………………………………47

4.2 Test of Hypotheses………………………………………………………………….48

4.3 Discussion of Findings………………………………………………………………51

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary…………………………………………………………………………….53

5.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………54

5.3 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………54

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………57

APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………63

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

In recent time, there has been increasing global concern over the continuously expanded rates of unemployment around the world, particularly in most developing countries, where the youth have been identified as the most affected groups. As a result, various governmental and non-governmental organizations have initiated policies through support agencies such as National Directorate for Employment (NDE), the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), Small Medium Enterprises Development Agency (SMEDAN), National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion (NOTAP), Raw Materials & Development Council (RMRDC) among others to address the problems of unemployment among Nigerian citizens (Olayinka 2010, Emannuel, 2012, Akhuemonkhan Raimi, & Sofoluwe, 2013). These aforementioned strategies were initiated with the hope that the development of self-employment and small enterprise initiatives would serve as a measure to unlock the economic potentials of the people, increase the capacity to empower and equip individuals in society to participate and benefit from their national economy as well as facilitates economic development which forms the bases for transformation (Unachukwu, 2019, Ekpo & Edet, 2014). More recently, the Federal government of Nigeria established another means to inculcate self-employment (entrepreneurship) culture in students of tertiary institutions. According to Aja-Okorie & Adali, (2013) “This mandate was given to the National Universities Commission to include entrepreneurial studies in the curriculum of Nigerian Universities with the hope of reducing unemployment among fresh graduates.

However, despite the recognition of entrepreneurship as having the potential to curb unemployment among Nigerian youth and the introduction of entrepreneurship education in Nigerian universities, about 80% of the Nigerian youth are unemployed and about 10% are under employed with 7 out of 10 graduates remaining unemployed  or underemployed (Dike, 2009). As the former minister of labour and productivity Adetokunbo Kayode has asserted, “the greatest challenge confronting government today remains massive unemployment which has served as a breeding ground for anti-social vices” in Nigeria (Olayinka, 2014).

In today’s competitive and challenging global world with diverse demands, many countries are facing serious problems of graduate unemployment (Adesina, 2013). As a result, the higher education sectors are under immense pressure from governments, employers and parents to produce quality graduates that can be economically engaged at the individual, national and global level (Teichler, 2017). Such graduates should possess a combination of attributes that will enable them to take an adaptive and proactive approach to their careers (Bezuidenhout, 2015). While there is consensus worldwide on the importance of addressing employability within higher education, there remains some debate on how best this can be achieved (Harvey, & Morey, 2013).

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Unachukwu (2019) identifies the challenges to entrepreneurship education in Nigeria to include: finance, manpower, educational data, inadequate infrastructures and entrepreneurial attitude. She advocates the need for entrepreneurial education for the youth.

Entrepreneurship has become a critical driver of economic growth and development in many countries around the world Cacciotti, G., Hayton, J. C., Mitchell, J. R., & Giazitzoglu, A. (2022). In the face of economic uncertainties and rising unemployment rates, fostering entrepreneurial skills and mindsets has gained significant attention. As a result, entrepreneurship education has emerged as a valuable tool to equip individuals with the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes to start and manage their own businesses Duczynski, P., & Zawadzka, A. M. (2021). This study focuses on the impact of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos State University (LASU), Nigeria.

Nigeria, being the most populous country in Africa, faces a high youth unemployment rate, which is a pressing challenge for the government and society as a whole. The traditional education system often emphasizes theoretical knowledge rather than practical skills, leaving graduates ill-prepared for the job market Kapoor, V., & Kotha, R. (2023). Recognizing the need to address this issue, Nigerian universities have begun incorporating entrepreneurship education into their curricula to equip students with the skills and mindset needed to become self-reliant and create employment opportunities for themselves and others.

Lagos State University, situated in the vibrant city of Lagos, serves as a prominent educational institution in Nigeria. With a diverse student population and a wide range of academic programs, LASU provides an ideal setting to investigate the impact of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among undergraduate students. Understanding the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in this context is essential for shaping policies and improving educational practices to better support students’ entrepreneurial aspirations and career prospects.

Entrepreneurship education refers to the systematic and structured instruction that aims to develop students’ entrepreneurial knowledge, skills, and attitudes Lee, H., Park, J., & Choi, Y. R. (2022). It goes beyond traditional business education by fostering creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, and innovation. By engaging students in real-world entrepreneurial experiences, such as business plan development, market research, and networking opportunities, entrepreneurship education helps students acquire practical skills that are vital for starting and managing successful ventures.

Skill acquisition is a multifaceted process that involves the development of both technical and soft skills Kuratko, D. F., Morris, M. H., & Schindehutte, M. (2015). Technical skills encompass the specific competencies required to perform tasks related to a particular field or industry. Soft skills, on the other hand, are transferable skills that enable individuals to effectively communicate, collaborate, lead, and adapt to changing circumstances. Both technical and soft skills are crucial for entrepreneurial success, as they enable entrepreneurs to identify opportunities, develop business models, attract customers, and navigate challenges.

Previous studies have highlighted the positive influence of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among students. Research conducted in various countries has shown that entrepreneurship education enhances students’ entrepreneurial intentions, self-efficacy, creativity, and problem-solving abilities. It has also been found to improve their knowledge of business concepts, financial management, marketing strategies, and networking skills. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the impact of entrepreneurship education at the postgraduate level or in specific disciplines.

To the best of our knowledge, there is a scarcity of research on the impact of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Nigerian universities, particularly within the context of LASU. This study aims to bridge this gap by investigating the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhances skill acquisition among undergraduate students in LASU. By assessing students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship education and their levels of skill acquisition, the study aims to provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education programs offered by LASU.

The findings of this study are expected to contribute to the existing literature on entrepreneurship education and skill acquisition. The research outcomes will provide policymakers, educators, and curriculum designers with evidence-based insights to enhance the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education programs. Furthermore, the study will serve as a foundation for future research in this field, facilitating a deeper understanding of the relationship between entrepreneurship education and skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Nigerian universities.

In conclusion, entrepreneurship education has gained recognition as a means to address the challenges of unemployment and foster economic growth. Understanding the impact of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in LASU is crucial for shaping policies and improving educational practices. By equipping students with the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes, entrepreneurship education has the potential to empower individuals to become successful entrepreneurs and contribute to the economic development of Nigeria.

1.2 Problem Statement

The rapid growth of entrepreneurship as a driver of economic development has emphasized the need for effective entrepreneurship education programs to equip individuals with the necessary skills and knowledge. In Lagos State, Nigeria, where youth unemployment rates are high, there is a growing recognition of the importance of entrepreneurship education in empowering undergraduate students and fostering their entrepreneurial potential. However, the extent to which entrepreneurship education in LASU effectively contributes to skill acquisition among undergraduate students remains unclear.

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The problem at hand is the lack of comprehensive research on the impact of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in LASU. While previous studies have explored the relationship between entrepreneurship education and various outcomes such as entrepreneurial intentions and attitudes, there is a need for a deeper understanding of how entrepreneurship education specifically influences the acquisition of practical skills among undergraduate students in LASU. The current state of knowledge leaves a gap in understanding the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education programs offered by LASU and their ability to equip students with the skills necessary to succeed as entrepreneurs.

Additionally, the specific skills that are targeted and developed through entrepreneurship education in LASU need further examination. Are the programs designed to enhance technical skills such as business planning, financial management, and marketing strategies? Do they also focus on nurturing soft skills such as communication, teamwork, problem-solving, and adaptability? Understanding the emphasis placed on different skill domains within entrepreneurship education programs in LASU will shed light on the comprehensive skill development of students.

Furthermore, the contextual factors that may influence the impact of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition in LASU require investigation. Factors such as students’ prior entrepreneurial experience, their socio-economic background, and the teaching methods employed in entrepreneurship courses may have a bearing on the effectiveness of the education programs. Understanding these contextual factors will provide insights into how entrepreneurship education can be tailored to meet the specific needs of undergraduate students in LASU.

Addressing these gaps in knowledge is essential to inform policy decisions and improve the design and delivery of entrepreneurship education programs in LASU. By examining the impact of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among undergraduate students, this study aims to contribute to the existing literature and provide evidence-based recommendations to enhance the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education initiatives in LASU, ultimately fostering the development of a more entrepreneurial society and addressing the challenges of unemployment in Lagos State, Nigeria.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university. Specifically, the study sought to:

  • evaluate the impact of curriculum of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university.
  • examine the significance relationship between teaching strategy and skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university .
  • examine the effect of learning methods on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university.

 

 

1.4       Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  • what is the impact of curriculum of entrepreneurship education on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university?
  • what is the significance relationship between teaching strategy and skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university ?
  • what is the effect of learning methods on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university ?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated for this study:

H01: Curriculum of entrepreneurship education has no impact on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university.

H02: There is no significance relationship between teaching strategy and skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university.

H03: Learning methods has no effect on skill acquisition among undergraduate students in Lagos state university.

1.6       Significance of the Study

This study will suggest initiatives to be taken by every stakeholder that are involved in entrepreneurship education (including the government, higher education institutions, employers, professional bodies, parents and the students) play its part in ensuring that graduates are able to find or create employment sustainably. Finally, the findings of the study will act as a reference point to other interested scholars interested in this area of research.

1.7       Scope of the Study

The study is delimited to undergraduate in Lagos State University. The content area covers entrepreneurship education, graduate entrepreneurs, graduate employees, skill acquisition, self-employability. The respondents include undergraduate in Lagos state university.

1.8       Limitations on the Study

A number of factors served as limitations on the study. This among others include un-cooperative attitude of undergraduates and respondents, time and financial constraint.

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms

Entrepreneurship: the activity of setting up a business or businesses, taking on financial risks in the hope of profit.

Entrepreneurship Education: Entrepreneurship education has been defined as “a collection of formalized teachings that informs, trains, and educates anyone interested in participating in socioeconomic development through a project to promote entrepreneurship awareness, business creation, or small business development.

Graduate Entrepreneur: this is a graduate with a business or a graduate that owns an organisation.

Skill Acquisition: Skill acquisition is the art of learning to do something in order to earn a living and or to survive

Self-employment: Self-employment is the state of being self-employed earning one’s main income by getting paid directly for one’s work, such as by owning one’s own business, as opposed to being an employee and getting paid by an employer.

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